India’s Largest Nuclear Fusion Reactor ITER


Worlds Largest Magnetic Nuclear Fusion Reactor (ITER)

ITER stands for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. It’s also the Latin for the way and the way forward here is the near pollution-free energy for all.

  • Magnetic Nuclear Fusion Reactor Experiment is set to go operation in 2025.
  • Nuclear Fusion Reactor Experiment is funded by seven countries the  European Union, IndiaJapan, China, Russia, South Korea, and the United States.
  • Designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power for 50 MW of input heating power.
  • It is being built next to the Cadarache facility in Saint-Paul-lès-Durance, in Provence, southern France.

History of Magnetic Nuclear Fusion Reactor ITER

Its has started at the height of the Cold War. When US President Ronald Reagan met the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at the Geneva Superpower Summit in 1985. General Secretary Gorbachev and US President have agreed that real confidence in each other must be built on Deeds, not on simple words.

To cement closer ties and as well as signing agreements on their safety and environmental issues. They formally recognized and emphasized the importance of thermonuclear.

Nuclear fusion for peaceful purposes project ITER was officially set in motion. Funded and run by the EU, US, Russia, China, India, South, Korea, and Japan. Domestic agencies were signed by ITER to work on a project that aims to replace carbon-based energy with a new clean nuclear energy.

What is Nuclear fusion?

Nuclear fusion is the reaction that gives our sun its energy and scientists want to replicate that process here on Earth and it all starts with Atoms of Tritium and Deuterium (isotopes of hydrogen, Hydrogen-3, and Hydrogen-2) unite under extreme pressure and temperature to produce a neutron and a helium isotope.

Along with this very larger amount of energy is released, which is several times higher than the amount produced by Nuclear fission.

Nuclear fission

Nuclear Fusion

In Nuclear fission, the large and very unstable isotope is split to release high heat energy, in this process unstable isotope is bombarded by high-speed particle i.e neutrons.

In this process neutrons are accelerated to strike the atom nucleus, this will break the nucleus into two smaller isotopes, this process is mostly used in the nuclear power plant. This resulting energy is then used to heat water in nuclear reactors and ultimately produces electricity

During the Nuclear fission process more neutrons released and they continued their trajectory hitting and splitting other atoms creating a nuclear chain reaction and a stable and sustained release of energy.This create large amount of radioactive waste which isolated until it can Decay.

How Nuclear fusion works?

During the Nuclear fussion process more neutrons released and they continued their trajectory hitting and splitting other atoms creating a nuclear chain reaction and a stable and sustained release of energy.

some of the reigning atoms capture neutrons produced during fission and they create radioactive waste which isolated until it can Decay. Nuclear fusion is the direct opposite of fission.

71 percent of the Earth’s surface water (H2O), which contains Hydrogen is the raw material for Nuclear fusion. They use specifically heavy hydrogen atoms such as Tritium or Deuterium in Fusion.

These atoms are speed up heated and slammed into each other to create helium and a sizeable amount of energy. It produces radioactive waste but in contrast to fission; the waste is much shorter.

So why aren’t we just creating energy out of seawater ?

The terrarium and tritium are unite at high temperatures to produce a nuclear fusion reaction ,produce a neutron and a helium isotope. Nucleus mass is a little less than the sum of the masses of the determine Trillium.

That’s the energy you get out of the fusion reactions is a minimal amount. It’s like four parts in a thousand but it is an extensive amount to compare with what you get from burning coal or Petrol.

Magnetic Nuclear Fusion Reactor ITER Working

What’s being built here in the south of France is a machine that will spin atoms very fast and such high temperatures that plasma is created it’s within this plasma that the atoms are slammed into one another creating energy. The machine itself is based on a Russian design Tokamak.

File:ITER Tokamak and Plant Systems (2016) (41783636452).jpg ...
image credit:iter

The cryostat base and lower cylinder, technology design were chosen to store the powerful magnetic field that will encase the ultra-hot plasma fusion core.

Completely surrounding the vacuum vessel and superconducting magnets, the 29 x 29 meter cryostat acts as a thermos, insulating the superconducting magnets at ultra-cold temperature from the outside environment and contributing to structural reinforcement by supporting the mass of the machine and transferring the mechanical loads of the ITER machine to the concrete structure of the tokamak pit.

Which is Manufactured by India, the ITER cryostat is 16,000 cubic meter. Its diameter and height are both almost 30 meters and it weighs 3,850 tons. Because of its bulk, it is being fabricated in four main sections: the base, lower cylinder, upper cylinder, and top lid.

Which comes to an end in India, Eight years later, the final segments are ready for shipment to ITER. Twelve segments of the top lid plus one central disk which is 650 tonnes in total.


ITER full form

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor


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